Again, it is important to highlight that even within the states that experienced delays, some jurisdictions featured significantly longer waits than others. For example, in Florida certain counties had average waits upwards of 80 minutes, while neighboring counties had waits of only 7-10 minutes. Florida’s average wait time of 45 minutes in 2012 glosses over the significantly higher wait times experienced in several areas. Notably, Miami, Lee County, and Orange County experienced over 80 minute wait times. Lee County arguably experienced the largest administrative meltdown of any county in Florida. There is a correlation between population density and wait times; as the population density increases, wait times also increase. This could account for variation within states where large cities may have experienced delays, whereas rural and suburban areas did not. However, population density is not a determinant factor as many urban centers experienced low wait times. For example, Los Angeles County averaged 7.7 minute waits on Election Day 2012. It is also important to note that areas with early voting also found increased wait times in more densely populated areas. Examining individual voters’ race also seems to correlate with wait times. M.I.T. Political Science Professor Charles Stewart has observed that Black and Hispanic voters faced significantly longer wait times. According to Professor Stewart, in statistical analyses of the difference between White and Black voting wait times that control for where voters live with greater specificity (e.g., entire state versus county, versus to ZIP code), the gaps between White and Black voters shrink. As Professor Stewart explains, “White voters who live in areas with black voters wait longer to vote than white voters who live around other white voters.” This suggests that while race may be a factor, it is not the only factor at play. While this Report does not specifically discuss the relationship between race and delays, some commentators have suggested the issue should be explored further. An analysis of this data is beyond the scope of this Report. Comparing individual wait time by partisan affiliation also yielded interesting results. There appear to be divides between Democrat and Republican average wait times; strong Democrats had the longest wait time (15.6 minutes) and strong Republicans the shortest (11.4 minutes). Like race, partisan correlations to wait times for voting are tied to multiple factors. Also like race, partisan impact of wait times at polling places has captured media interest.