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April 15, 2019

Powerpoint References

Architect. Architect of the Capitol, Portrait Monument to Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, available at

Arkes. Hal R. Arkes& Victoria A. Shaffer, Should We Use Decision Aids or Gut Feelings?inG. Gigerenzer& C. Engel, eds., Heuristics and the Law (2004).

Banaji & Heiphetz. Mahzarin R. Banaji & Larisa Heiphetz, Attitudes in Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, & Gardner Lindzey, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology 363-65 (5th ed. 2010).

Banks. R. Richard Banks, Jennifer L. Eberhardt, &Leet Ross, Discrimination and Implicit Bias in a Racially Unequal Society, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1169 (2006) (focusing on on research and racially discriminatory outcomes re: decisions in investigation, lethal force, and criminal sentencing).

Bartlett. Katherine Bartlett, Making Good on Good Intentions: The Critical Role of Motivation in Reducing Implicit Workplace Discrimination, 95 Va. L. Rev. 1893 (2009).

Benforado. Adam Benforado & John Hanson, The Great Attributional Divide: How Divergent Views of Human Behavior Are Shaping Legal Policy, 57 Emory L.J. 311, 325-26 (2007-2008).

Bennett. Mark W. Bennett, Unraveling the Gordian Knot of Implicit Bias in Jury Selection: The Problems of Judge-Dominated Voir Dire, the Failed Promise of Batson, and Proposed Solutions, 4 Harv. L. & Pol’y Rev. 149, xxxx (2010).

Bernstein. Douglas A. Bernstein et al., Psychology 290 (8th ed. 2007).

Blair. Irene V. Blair, The Malleability of Automatic Stereotypes and Prejudice, 6 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Rev. 242 (2002).
Blanton. Hart Blanton et al., Decoding the Implicit Ass'n Test: Implications for Criterion Prediction, 42 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 192 (2006).

Bronson. Po Bronson & Ashley Merryman, See Baby Discriminate, Newsweek (September 5, 2009), available at

Chang. Mitchell J. Chang et al., The Educational Benefits of Sustaining Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates, 77 J. High Educ. 430, 449 (2006)


Correll. Joshua Correll, Across the Thin Blue Line: Police Officers and Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot, 92 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1006 (finding a lower threshold for deciding to shoot an African American).

Daniel J. Simons, Selective Attention Test, (1999)
Dasgupta. Nilanjana Dasgupta & Shaki Asgari, Seeing Is Believing: Exposure to Counterstereotypic Women Leaders and Its Effect on the Malleability of Automatic Gender Stereotypes, 40 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 642 (2004).

Davison. Adam Davison, The Lunch Date, available at (film)
Diallo. Amadou Diallo, Times Topics, New York Times,

Donald.. Merlin Donald, How Culture and Brain Mechanisms Interact in Decision Making, in Christoph Engel & Wolf Singer, eds., Better than Conscious? Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications for Institutions 191 (2008).

Eberhardt. Jennifer L. Eberhardt et al. , Looking Deathworthy: Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital Sentencing Outcomes, 17 Psychol Sci., No. 5 (2006).

Fiske..Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, & Gardner Lindzey, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology 1090 (5th ed. 2010)
Frederick. Shane Frederick, Cognitive Reflection and Decision Making, 19 JEc. Persp 25, 26-27, Abstract (2005), available at

Gawronski & Payne 2010. Bertram Gawronski & B. Keith Payne, Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Application 117 (2010); Gawronski & Payne. Bertram Gawronski & B. Keith Payne, Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Application 87 (2010).Project Implicit,

Gawronski 2007. Bertram Gawronski et. al., What Do Implicit Measures Tell Us? Scrutinizing the Validity of Three Common Assumptions, Perspective on Psychol. Sci. 2-2 (Winter 2007)

Gladwell 2007. Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking (2007).

Greenwald * Poehlman. Anthony G. Greenwald, T. Andrew Poehlman, Eric Luis Uhlmann, & Mahzarin R. Banaji, Understanding and Using the Implicit Ass'n Test: III. Meta-analysis of Predictive Validity, 97 J. PERSONALITY & SOC. PSYCH. 17 (2009) (finding “incremental validity”)

Greenwald AALSPresentation 2011. Anthony G. Greenwald, Implicit Association Test (IAT) in Legal Settings, Presentation, Ass’n American Law Schools. AALS Annual Meeting, (San Francisco Jan. 6, 2011).

Greenwald et al. 1998. Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test, 85 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1464 (1998).

Greenwald Psychology Presentation. Anthony Greenwald, The Psychology of Blink - Part 1 of 2: Understanding How Our Minds Work Unconsciously, Presentation, available at

Guthrie 2001. Chris Guthrie et al., Inside the Judicial Mind, 86 Cornell L. Rev. 777 (2001).

Guthrie 2004. Chris Guthrie, Law, Information, and Choice, Capitalizing on Heuristic Habits of Thought in G. Gigerenzer& C. Engel, eds., Heuristics and the Law (2004).

Guthrie 2007. Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, & Andrew J. Wistrich, BLINKING ON THE BENCH: HOW JUDGES DECIDE CASES, 93 Cornell L. Rev. 1 (2007).

Guthrie 2008. Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, & Andrew J. Wistrich, The "Hidden Judiciary": An Empirical Examination of Executive Branch Justice, 58 Duke L.J. 1477 (2008-2009).

Harvard 2002. Men Still Rule on Harvard Walls, The Harvard Crimson, Feb, 27, 2002, at 1.

Hoffman. Willhem Hoffman et. al., A Meta-Analysis on the Correlation Between the Implicit Association Test and Explicit Self-Report Measures, 31 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Bulletin. 1369 (2005), available at,2005%29.pdf;


Irwin. 2010. John F. Irwin & Daniel L. Real, Judicial Ethics and Accountability: At Home and Abroad: Unconscious Influences on Judicial Decision-Making: The Illusion of Objectivity, 42 McGeorge L. Rev. 1 (2010).

Jolls. Christine Jolls, Antidiscrimination Law's Effects on Implicit Bias in Mitu Gulati & Michael J. Yelnosky, NYU Selected Essays on Labor and Employment Law, 3 Behavioral Analyses of Workplace Discrimination 83 (2007);

Juvenile. Focal Point Summer 1994, Vol. 8 No. 2.

Kang & Banaji 2006. Jerry Kang & Mahzarin Banaji "Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of Affirmative Action, 94 Calif. L. Rev. 1063 (2006).

Kang & Lane. Jerry Kang & Kristine Lane, Seeing Through Colorblindness: Implicit Bias and the Law, 58 UCLA L. Rev. 465 (2010). (summarizingempirical evidence on “colorblindness” and calling on the law to take a "behavioral realist" account of these findings).

Kang Primer 2009. Jerry Kang, Nat'l Center for State Courts, NCSC , Implicit Bias, A Primer (2009), available at

Levinson & Young. Justin D. Levinson & Danielle Young, Different Shades of Bias: Skin Tone, Implicit Racial Bias, and Judgments of Ambiguous Evidence 112 W. V. U. L. Rev. 307,316-323 (2010) (“Participants who implicitly associated Black and Guilty were more likely to make harsher judgments of ambiguous evidence .“).

Levinson et al. Justin D. Levinson, Huajian Cai& Danielle Young, Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not Guilty Implicit Association Test, 8 Ohio St. J. Crim L. 187 (2010).

Levinson. Justin D. Levinson, Forgotten Racial Equality: Implicit Bias, Decisionmaking, and Misremembering, 57 Duke L. J. 345 (2007).

Marsh 2006. Shawn C. Marsh, The Lens of Implicit Bias, Juvenile and Family Justice Today 17-19 (Summer 2009).

Miller 1984. Norman Miller & Marilynn B. Brewer, The Social Psychology of Desegregation: An Introduction, in Groups in Contact: The Psychology of Desegregation 1, 2 (Norman Miller & Marilynn B. Brewer eds., 1984).

Mustard 2001. David B. Mustard, Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the US Federal Courts, 44 J.L. & ECON. 285, 285 (2001)

Nancy Levit, Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem in Feminist Legal Theory, 28 Cardozo L. Rev. 391, 394 (2006).

Nisbett. Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy Decamp Wilson, Telling More than We can Know: Verbal Re[ports on Mental Processes, 84 Psych. Rev. 231 (1977), available at
(people may not know, and may not report, and, when change their minds, may “misremember” their earlier attitudes.

Nosek. B.A. Nosek et al., Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes, 18 European Review of Soc. Psychol. 36(2007), available at

Perdue 1990. Charles W. Perdue et al., "Us" and "Them": Social Categorization and the Process of Intergroup Bias, 59 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 475, 478-79, 482-84 (1990).

Pettigrew. Thomas F. Pettigrew & Linda R. Tropp, A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory, 90 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 751 (2006).

Plous. Scott Plous, The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making 239 (1993).

Porter. Natalie Porter & Florence L. Geis, Women and Nonverbal Leadership Cues: When Seeing is Not Believing, in Clara Mayo & Nancy M. Henley, eds. Gender and nonverbal behaviors 40-43 (1981).

Rachlinski 2006. Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Chris Guthrie, & Andrew Wistrich, Inside the Bankruptcy Judges Mind, 88 B.U. L. Rev. 1227 (2006)

Rachlinski 2007. Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Heuristics, Biases, and Philosophy, 43 Tulsa L. Rev. 865 (2007-2008)

Rachlinski 2008. Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Andrew J. Wistrich, & Chris Guthrie, Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges?, 84 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1195 (2008-2009).

Ramirez 2009 Mary Kreiner Ramirez, Into the Twilight Zone: Informing Judicial Discretion in Federal Sentencing, 57 Drake L. Rev. 592, 624 (2009).

Ramirez. Mary Kreiner Ramirez, Into the Twilight Zone: Informing Judicial Discretion in Federal Sentencing, 57 Drake L. Rev. 592 (2009);

Redfield. 2009. Sarah E. Redfield, Diversity Realized: Putting the Walk with the Talk for Diversity in the Pipeline to the Legal Profession (2009).

Redfield. Sarah E. Redfield, Hispanics and the Pipeline to the Legal Profession: aka Lawyers Don’t Do Math (publication forthcoming Hispanic Bar Journal, on file with author).

Rudman 2004. Laurie A. Rudman, Sources of Implicit Attitudes, 13 Current Directions in Psychol. Sci. 79 (2004)
Sandler. Bernice Sandler, The Campus Climate Revisited: Chilly for Women Faculty, Administrators, and Graduate Students, Association of American Colleges (1986).

Secunda 2010. Paul M. Secunda, Cultural Cognition at Work, 38 Fla. St. U.L. Rev. 107, 109 (2010) (discussing cultural impact in judicial decision-making).

Smith. Alison C. Smith & Edith Greene, Conduct and Its Consequences: Attempts at Debiasing Jury Judgments, 29 L. & Hum. Behav.505 (Oct., 2005).

Steele & Aronson. Claude M. Steele & Joshua Aronson, Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans, 69 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 797, 808 (1995)

Steele 2010. Claude M. Steele, Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us (2010) (describing source of title as a black graduate student who becomes non-threatening when he whistles Vivaldi)

Stroop. Interactive Stroop Effect Experiment, available at

Tajfel. Henri Tajfel, Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination, 223 Sci. Am. 96 (1970).

Vedantam 2005. Shankar Vedantam, See No Bias, The Washington Post Magazine, p. 12 (January 23, 2005)(describing reaction of some of researchers to their scores on the Implicit Association Test).

Vedantam 2010. Shankar Vedantam, The Hidden Brain (2010)

Vedantam, Hidden Brain , supra slide # xxxx at 74-75 (discussing pervasive bias among very young children).

Vedantam, Shankar Vendantm, See No Bias,The Washington Post Magazine, p. 12 (January 23, 2005).

Vedantam. Shankar Vedantam, The Hidden Brain 168-78 (2010) (discussing death penalty in relation to skin color).

Virginia 1997. Univ. of Virginia Portraits of Law School Deans focus Attention on Need for Diversity, JET, Mar. 3, 1997 at 32.

Virginia Valian, Beyond Gender Schemas: Improving the Advancement of Women in Academia, 20 Hypatia #3 (2005)

Valian. Virginia Valian, Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women 104-06 (1999)

Walters. Alyssa M. Walters et al. Stereotype Threat, the Test-Center Environment, and Performance on the GRE General Test, ETS Research Report 34-36 (December 2004), available at finding support for stereotype threat in testing situations).

Wayne MacKenzie, Testimony,Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, (2009).

Weber. Elke U. Weber and Eric J. Johnson, Mindful Judgment and Decision Making. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 53-85 (2009).

Wellman. Justin A. Wellman, Alexander M. Czopp, and Andrew L. Geers, The Egalitarian Optimist and the Confrontation of Prejudice, (2009) available at

Ziegert. See Jonathan C. Ziegert& Paul J. Hanges, Employment Discrimination: The Role of Implicit Attitudes, Motivation, and a Climate for Racial Bias, 90 J. Applied Psychol. 553, 556 (2005).

IAT. Implicit Association Test, Information, available at

Building Trust. Criminal Justice Section et al., Building Community Trust: Improving Cross-cultural Communication in the Criminal Justice System, available at