Litigants who proffer data obtained from social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram must authenticate the data before the data will be admitted as evidence. Nearly all jurisdictions have a rule of evidence addressing authentication of exhibits and records, many of which mirror Rule 901(a) of the Federal Rules of Evidence. Courts have not agreed, however, on how to satisfy the requirements of Rule 901(a) for social media evidence. Recently, in Commonwealth v. Mangel, 2018 Pa. Super. 225, at *1 (Mar. 15, 2018), the Pennsylvania Superior Court held that data from the defendant’s Facebook account were not admissible without sufficient direct or circumstantial evidence that the defendant authored the Facebook messages in question or posted the photograph obtained from Facebook. Other jurisdictions have also attempted to establish a definitive standard for admissibility, which has led to two distinct standards for authentication—one that treats social media information like any other type of evidence and another that holds social media information to a more demanding standard on the basis that it is subject to manipulation by persons other than the owner of the account.
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