chevron-down Created with Sketch Beta.

PowerPoint Instructions

In deciding on your time consider the Slide Summary.

There are two Powerpoints:

  • A 90 minute CLE based on a PowerPoint presentation and supplementary materials that offer a general overview of implicit bias and debiasing.
  • An alternative choice CLE based on a PowerPoint and supplementary materials that office a focus on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the work of Judge Delissa Ridgeway and Professor Jeffrey Rachlinski.
  • A longer (1/2 day) program, which incorporates and expands on the 90 minute CLE and offers more opportunity for small group discussion plus additional material on employment issues.

PowerPoint References

  • Architect. Architect of the Capitol, Portrait Monument to Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, available at
  • Arkes. Hal R. Arkes& Victoria A. Shaffer, Should We Use Decision Aids or Gut Feelings?inG. Gigerenzer& C. Engel, eds., Heuristics and the Law (2004).
  • Banaji & Heiphetz. Mahzarin R. Banaji & Larisa Heiphetz, Attitudes in Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, & Gardner Lindzey, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology 363-65 (5th ed. 2010).
  • Banks. R. Richard Banks, Jennifer L. Eberhardt, &Leet Ross, Discrimination and Implicit Bias in a Racially Unequal Society, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1169 (2006) (focusing on on research and racially discriminatory outcomes re: decisions in investigation, lethal force, and criminal sentencing).
  • Bartlett. Katherine Bartlett, Making Good on Good Intentions: The Critical Role of Motivation in Reducing Implicit Workplace Discrimination, 95 Va. L. Rev. 1893 (2009).
  • Benforado. Adam Benforado & John Hanson, The Great Attributional Divide: How Divergent Views of Human Behavior Are Shaping Legal Policy, 57 Emory L.J. 311, 325-26 (2007-2008).
  • Bennett. Mark W. Bennett, Unraveling the Gordian Knot of Implicit Bias in Jury Selection: The Problems of Judge-Dominated Voir Dire, the Failed Promise of Batson, and Proposed Solutions, 4 Harv. L. & Pol’y Rev. 149, xxxx (2010).
  • Bernstein. Douglas A. Bernstein et al., Psychology 290 (8th ed. 2007).
  • Blair. Irene V. Blair, The Malleability of Automatic Stereotypes and Prejudice, 6 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Rev. 242 (2002).
    Blanton. Hart Blanton et al., Decoding the Implicit Ass'n Test: Implications for Criterion Prediction, 42 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 192 (2006).
  • Bronson. Po Bronson & Ashley Merryman, See Baby Discriminate, Newsweek (September 5, 2009), available at
  • Chang. Mitchell J. Chang et al., The Educational Benefits of Sustaining Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates, 77 J. High Educ. 430, 449 (2006)
  • Checkerboard.
  • Correll. Joshua Correll, Across the Thin Blue Line: Police Officers and Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot, 92 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1006 (finding a lower threshold for deciding to shoot an African American).
  • Daniel J. Simons, Selective Attention Test, (1999)
    Dasgupta. Nilanjana Dasgupta & Shaki Asgari, Seeing Is Believing: Exposure to Counterstereotypic Women Leaders and Its Effect on the Malleability of Automatic Gender Stereotypes, 40 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 642 (2004).
  • Davison. Adam Davison, The Lunch Date, available at (film)
    Diallo. Amadou Diallo, Times Topics, New York Times,
  • Donald.. Merlin Donald, How Culture and Brain Mechanisms Interact in Decision Making, in Christoph Engel & Wolf Singer, eds., Better than Conscious? Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications for Institutions 191 (2008).
  • Eberhardt. Jennifer L. Eberhardt et al. , Looking Deathworthy: Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital Sentencing Outcomes, 17 Psychol Sci., No. 5 (2006).
  • Fiske..Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, & Gardner Lindzey, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology 1090 (5th ed. 2010)
    Frederick. Shane Frederick, Cognitive Reflection and Decision Making, 19 JEc. Persp 25, 26-27, Abstract (2005), available at
  • Gawronski & Payne 2010. Bertram Gawronski & B. Keith Payne, Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Application 117 (2010); Gawronski & Payne. Bertram Gawronski & B. Keith Payne, Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Application 87 (2010).Project Implicit,
  • Gawronski 2007. Bertram Gawronski et. al., What Do Implicit Measures Tell Us? Scrutinizing the Validity of Three Common Assumptions, Perspective on Psychol. Sci. 2-2 (Winter 2007)
  • Gladwell 2007. Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking (2007).
  • Greenwald * Poehlman. Anthony G. Greenwald, T. Andrew Poehlman, Eric Luis Uhlmann, & Mahzarin R. Banaji, Understanding and Using the Implicit Ass'n Test: III. Meta-analysis of Predictive Validity, 97 J. PERSONALITY & SOC. PSYCH. 17 (2009) (finding “incremental validity”)
  • Greenwald AALSPresentation 2011. Anthony G. Greenwald, Implicit Association Test (IAT) in Legal Settings, Presentation, Ass’n American Law Schools. AALS Annual Meeting, (San Francisco Jan. 6, 2011).
  • Greenwald et al. 1998. Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test, 85 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1464 (1998).
  • Greenwald Psychology Presentation. Anthony Greenwald, The Psychology of Blink - Part 1 of 2: Understanding How Our Minds Work Unconsciously, Presentation, available at
  • Guthrie 2001. Chris Guthrie et al., Inside the Judicial Mind, 86 Cornell L. Rev. 777 (2001).
  • Guthrie 2004. Chris Guthrie, Law, Information, and Choice, Capitalizing on Heuristic Habits of Thought in G. Gigerenzer& C. Engel, eds., Heuristics and the Law (2004).
  • Guthrie 2007. Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, & Andrew J. Wistrich, BLINKING ON THE BENCH: HOW JUDGES DECIDE CASES, 93 Cornell L. Rev. 1 (2007).
  • Guthrie 2008. Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, & Andrew J. Wistrich, The "Hidden Judiciary": An Empirical Examination of Executive Branch Justice, 58 Duke L.J. 1477 (2008-2009).
  • Harvard 2002. Men Still Rule on Harvard Walls, The Harvard Crimson, Feb, 27, 2002, at 1.
  • Hoffman. Willhem Hoffman et. al., A Meta-Analysis on the Correlation Between the Implicit Association Test and Explicit Self-Report Measures, 31 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Bulletin. 1369 (2005), available at,2005%29.pdf;
  • IAT. IAT,
  • Irwin. 2010. John F. Irwin & Daniel L. Real, Judicial Ethics and Accountability: At Home and Abroad: Unconscious Influences on Judicial Decision-Making: The Illusion of Objectivity, 42 McGeorge L. Rev. 1 (2010).
  • Jolls. Christine Jolls, Antidiscrimination Law's Effects on Implicit Bias in Mitu Gulati & Michael J. Yelnosky, NYU Selected Essays on Labor and Employment Law, 3 Behavioral Analyses of Workplace Discrimination 83 (2007);
  • Juvenile. Focal Point Summer 1994, Vol. 8 No. 2.
  • Kang & Banaji 2006. Jerry Kang & Mahzarin Banaji "Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of Affirmative Action, 94 Calif. L. Rev. 1063 (2006).
  • Kang & Lane. Jerry Kang & Kristine Lane, Seeing Through Colorblindness: Implicit Bias and the Law, 58 UCLA L. Rev. 465 (2010). (summarizingempirical evidence on “colorblindness” and calling on the law to take a "behavioral realist" account of these findings).
  • Kang Primer 2009. Jerry Kang, Nat'l Center for State Courts, NCSC , Implicit Bias, A Primer (2009), available at
  • Levinson & Young. Justin D. Levinson & Danielle Young, Different Shades of Bias: Skin Tone, Implicit Racial Bias, and Judgments of Ambiguous Evidence 112 W. V. U. L. Rev. 307,316-323 (2010) (“Participants who implicitly associated Black and Guilty were more likely to make harsher judgments of ambiguous evidence .“).
  • Levinson et al. Justin D. Levinson, Huajian Cai& Danielle Young, Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not Guilty Implicit Association Test, 8 Ohio St. J. Crim L. 187 (2010).
  • Levinson. Justin D. Levinson, Forgotten Racial Equality: Implicit Bias, Decisionmaking, and Misremembering, 57 Duke L. J. 345 (2007).
  • Marsh 2006. Shawn C. Marsh, The Lens of Implicit Bias, Juvenile and Family Justice Today 17-19 (Summer 2009).
  • Miller 1984. Norman Miller & Marilynn B. Brewer, The Social Psychology of Desegregation: An Introduction, in Groups in Contact: The Psychology of Desegregation 1, 2 (Norman Miller & Marilynn B. Brewer eds., 1984).
  • Mustard 2001. David B. Mustard, Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the US Federal Courts, 44 J.L. & ECON. 285, 285 (2001)
  • Nancy Levit, Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem in Feminist Legal Theory, 28 Cardozo L. Rev. 391, 394 (2006).
  • Nisbett. Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy Decamp Wilson, Telling More than We can Know: Verbal Re[ports on Mental Processes, 84 Psych. Rev. 231 (1977), available at
    (people may not know, and may not report, and, when change their minds, may “misremember” their earlier attitudes.
  • Nosek. B.A. Nosek et al., Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes, 18 European Review of Soc. Psychol. 36(2007), available at
  • Perdue 1990. Charles W. Perdue et al., "Us" and "Them": Social Categorization and the Process of Intergroup Bias, 59 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 475, 478-79, 482-84 (1990).
  • Pettigrew. Thomas F. Pettigrew & Linda R. Tropp, A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory, 90 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 751 (2006).
  • Plous. Scott Plous, The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making 239 (1993).
  • Porter. Natalie Porter & Florence L. Geis, Women and Nonverbal Leadership Cues: When Seeing is Not Believing, in Clara Mayo & Nancy M. Henley, eds. Gender and nonverbal behaviors 40-43 (1981).
  • Rachlinski 2006. Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Chris Guthrie, & Andrew Wistrich, Inside the Bankruptcy Judges Mind, 88 B.U. L. Rev. 1227 (2006)
  • Rachlinski 2007. Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Heuristics, Biases, and Philosophy, 43 Tulsa L. Rev. 865 (2007-2008)
  • Rachlinski 2008. Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Andrew J. Wistrich, & Chris Guthrie, Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges?, 84 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1195 (2008-2009).
  • Ramirez 2009 Mary Kreiner Ramirez, Into the Twilight Zone: Informing Judicial Discretion in Federal Sentencing, 57 Drake L. Rev. 592, 624 (2009).
  • Ramirez. Mary Kreiner Ramirez, Into the Twilight Zone: Informing Judicial Discretion in Federal Sentencing, 57 Drake L. Rev. 592 (2009);
  • Redfield. 2009. Sarah E. Redfield, Diversity Realized: Putting the Walk with the Talk for Diversity in the Pipeline to the Legal Profession (2009).
  • Redfield. Sarah E. Redfield, Hispanics and the Pipeline to the Legal Profession: aka Lawyers Don’t Do Math (publication forthcoming Hispanic Bar Journal, on file with author).
  • Rudman 2004. Laurie A. Rudman, Sources of Implicit Attitudes, 13 Current Directions in Psychol. Sci. 79 (2004)
    Sandler. Bernice Sandler, The Campus Climate Revisited: Chilly for Women Faculty, Administrators, and Graduate Students, Association of American Colleges (1986).
  • Secunda 2010. Paul M. Secunda, Cultural Cognition at Work, 38 Fla. St. U.L. Rev. 107, 109 (2010) (discussing cultural impact in judicial decision-making).
  • Smith. Alison C. Smith & Edith Greene, Conduct and Its Consequences: Attempts at Debiasing Jury Judgments, 29 L. & Hum. Behav.505 (Oct., 2005).
  • Steele & Aronson. Claude M. Steele & Joshua Aronson, Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans, 69 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 797, 808 (1995)
  • Steele 2010. Claude M. Steele, Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us (2010) (describing source of title as a black graduate student who becomes non-threatening when he whistles Vivaldi)
  • Stroop. Interactive Stroop Effect Experiment, available at
  • Tajfel. Henri Tajfel, Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination, 223 Sci. Am. 96 (1970).
  • Vedantam 2005. Shankar Vedantam, See No Bias, The Washington Post Magazine, p. 12 (January 23, 2005)(describing reaction of some of researchers to their scores on the Implicit Association Test).
  • Vedantam 2010. Shankar Vedantam, The Hidden Brain (2010)
  • Vedantam, Hidden Brain , supra slide # xxxx at 74-75 (discussing pervasive bias among very young children).
  • Vedantam, Shankar Vendantm, See No Bias,The Washington Post Magazine, p. 12 (January 23, 2005).
  • Vedantam. Shankar Vedantam, The Hidden Brain 168-78 (2010) (discussing death penalty in relation to skin color).
  • Virginia 1997. Univ. of Virginia Portraits of Law School Deans focus Attention on Need for Diversity, JET, Mar. 3, 1997 at 32.
  • Virginia Valian, Beyond Gender Schemas: Improving the Advancement of Women in Academia, 20 Hypatia #3 (2005)
  • Valian. Virginia Valian, Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women 104-06 (1999)
  • Walters. Alyssa M. Walters et al. Stereotype Threat, the Test-Center Environment, and Performance on the GRE General Test, ETS Research Report 34-36 (December 2004), available at finding support for stereotype threat in testing situations).
  • Wayne MacKenzie, Testimony,Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, (2009).
  • Weber. Elke U. Weber and Eric J. Johnson, Mindful Judgment and Decision Making. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 53-85 (2009).
  • Wellman. Justin A. Wellman, Alexander M. Czopp, and Andrew L. Geers, The Egalitarian Optimist and the Confrontation of Prejudice, (2009) available at
  • Ziegert. See Jonathan C. Ziegert& Paul J. Hanges, Employment Discrimination: The Role of Implicit Attitudes, Motivation, and a Climate for Racial Bias, 90 J. Applied Psychol. 553, 556 (2005).
  • IAT. Implicit Association Test, Information, available at
  • Building Trust. Criminal Justice Section et al., Building Community Trust: Improving Cross-cultural Communication in the Criminal Justice System, available at