For most multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in China, environmental protection has become the most significant focus of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda in the past five years. Since its revised Environmental Protection Law was put into effect on January 1, 2015, the Chinese government has initiated intensified environmental enforcement from the central government to the local level. According to China Judgments Online, a national electronic database of published judicial decisions administered by the Supreme People’s Court of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the number of published criminal judgments for the offense of environmental pollution (Criminal Law, art. 338) has increased dramatically nationwide, from 40 cases in 2013 to more than 2,000 cases each year in 2018 and 2019.
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