In the Arctic, which is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet due to climate change, jurisdiction and pollution issues are emerging. New commercial and cruise shipping routes, fishing grounds, and oil and gas drilling areas are encroaching on Arctic communities and ecosystems. Arctic countries each implement environmental and maritime laws, and many Arctic countries and groups of indigenous peoples belong to international organizations that convene stakeholders and implement policies. This article explores Arctic governance legal frameworks and analyzes international, national, and local policy developments shaping future Arctic commerce and environmental protection.
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