The Gulf Coast region accounts for approximately 54 percent of the total U.S. crude oil production and 47 percent of the total U.S. oil refining capacity. NOAA State of the Coast Report Series, The Gulf of Mexico at a Glance: A Second Glance (June 2011). Apart from crude oil production, the Gulf Coast is an important commercial center. In 2009, the Gulf Coast region contained thirteen of the nation’s twenty leading ports and three of the top six commercial fishing ports. Id. At the time of the spill, residents and ecosystems in the region were still recovering from hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, and Gustav and Ike in 2008. In addition to direct damage from hurricanes, tourism and the seafood industry in the Gulf Coast were affected.