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Unbundling Resource Center


Rebecca A. Albrecht, et al, Judicial Techniques for Cases Involving Self-Representing Litigants, 42 Judges' Journal 16 (Winter 2003).

Kathryn Alfisi, Access to Justice: Helping Litigants Help Themselves, Washington Lawyer (January 2010).

John W. Allen, The New Uncertainties of ADM 2016-41: "Informed Consent" and "Confirmed in Writing", Michigan Bar Journal (March 2018)

Barrie Althoff, Ethics and the Law: Ethical Considerations for Lawyers and Judges When Dealing with Unrepresented Persons, Washington State Bar News (January 2000).

Barrie Althoff, Limiting the Scope of Your Representation: Questions of Cost, Candor, and Disclosure, Washington State Bar News (July 1997).

Barrie Althoff, Limiting the Scope of Your Representation: When Your Client Wants, or Can Afford, Only Part of You, Washington State Bar News (June 1997).

Mary C. Ashcroft, Unbundling Legal Services: Delivering What Your Client Wants at a Price She Can Afford, Vermont Bar Journal (Winter 2010).

Andrea R. Barter, Limited Assistance Representation Pilot Program Receives High Marks, Expands, Lawyers Weekly Journal (January 2008).

Margaret Martin Barry, Accessing Justice: Are Pro Se Clinics a Reasonable Response to the Lack of Pro Bono Legal Services and Should Law School Clinics Conduct Them?, 67 Fordham L Rev 1879 (1999).

Donna Beaudet, How to Provide Access Without Giving Legal Advice: Practical Guidelines for Court Staff, The Court Manager, Vol. 14, at 22 (1999).

Kathleen Bird, A Look at Unbundling of Legal Services, Journal of the Missouri Bar (January-February 2007).

Stefanie Blahut, A La Legal: Why Unbundling is the Future of Legal Service Delivery, The Arkansas Journal of Social Change and Public Service (May 31, 2017)

Jeff Bleich, The Neglected Middle Class, California Bar Journal (June 2008).

John T. Broderick, Jr. and Ronald M. George, A Nation of Do-It-Yourself Lawyers, New York Times (January 1, 2010).

Ellen C. Brotman, Unpacking Unbundled Legal Services: Why Does the DOJ Care? The Legal Intelligencer (June 20, 2017)

Lori A. Buiteweg, Limited Scope Representation: A Possible Panacea for Reducing Pro Per Court Congestion, Attorney Underemployment, and a Frustrated Public, Michigan Bar Journal (August 2016)

John M. Burman, Ethically Speaking: Dealing with an Opposing Party Who is Proceeding Pro Se, Wyoming Lawyer, Vol. 31, No. 3 (June 2008).

Henry A. Callaway, Alabama's New Limited Scope Representation Rules, The Alabama Lawyer (July 2012)

Deborah J. Cantrell, Justice for Interests of the Poor: The Problem of Navigating the System Without Counsel, 70 Fordham L Rev 1573 (2002).

Anthony P. Capozzi, Responding to the Pro Per Crisis, California Bar Journal (February 2004).

Dennis Carlson, Amendments to Rules Facilitate Unbundling of Legal Services, The Nebraska Lawyer (November/December 2008).

Debra Cassens Weiss, Law firm that filled in petition blanks wasn't ghostwriting, 11th Circuit says, ABA Journal (September 2013)

Dane S. Ciolino, May I Undertake a Limited Scope Representation? Louisiana Legal Ethics (August 6, 2013)

Kathryn Dahlke, Online Resources Provide Pro Se Guidance and Reveal ProBono Opportunities, Colorado Lawyer (July 2009).

Melissa Darigan, Changes in How We Practice: Limited Scope Representation is HereRhode Island Bar Journal, (Nov-Dec, 2015).

Seth Davidson, Making Limited Scope Legal Services Work, California Bar Journal (May 2015).

Diane S. Diel, Why Don’t They Hire Lawyers? Wisconsin Lawyer, Vol. 81, No. 9 (September 2008).

David Dodge, Limited Representation and Your Engagement Letter, Arizona Attorney (November 2007).

Hon. Richard Dollinger, Part 1: Limited scope representation in NY, Buffalo Law Journal (January 31, 2017)

Hon. Richard Dollinger, Part 2: Limited scope representation in NY, Buffalo Law Journal (February 8, 2017)

Amy Dunn Johnson, Unbundled Legal Services: A Revolution Whose Time Has Come, The Arkansas Lawyer (Vol. 49 No. 3 Summer 2014)

Timothy Eaton and David Holtermann, Limited Scope Representation is Here, Chicago Bar Record (April 2010).

Russell Engler, And Justice for All — Including the Unrepresented Poor: Revisiting the Roles of the Judges, Mediators and Clerks, 67 Fordham L Rev 1987 (1999).

Adam J. Espinosa, Ethical Considerations When Providing Unbundled Legal Services, The Colorado Lawyer (September 2011).

Stephen Fairley, 4 Ways Attorneys Can Connect with Today’s Legal Consumers, The National Law Review (February 23, 2017) 

Alicia M. Farley, An Important Piece of the Bundle: How Limited Appearances Can Provide an Ethically Sound Way to Increase Access to Justice for Pro Se Litigants, The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Summer 2007).

Blake M. Feamster, Ghostwriting: An Ethical Issue in the Evolution of the Legal Field, Oklahoma Bar Journal (December 2016)

G.M. Filisko. Self-help centers could better serve consumers by helping them find lawyers, survey indicates, ABA Journal, (February 2015)

Ed Finkel, Alternative Billing Comes to Main Street, Illinois Bar Journal, Vol. 102 No. 10 (October 2014).

Julee C. Fischer, Note, Policing the Self-Help Legal Market: Consumer Protection or Protection of the Legal Cartel?, 34 Indiana L Rev 121 (2000).

Fern Fisher-Brandveen and Rochelle Klempner, Unbundled Legal Services: Untying the Bundle in New York State, 29 Fordham Urban L J 1107 (Feb. 2002). (Abstract)

Margaret B. Flaherty, Note, How Courts Help You Help Yourself: The Internet and the Pro Se Divorce Litigant, 40 Family Court Rev 91 (2002).

Scott Forman, Perspective: How Law Firms Can Embrace UnbundlingBloomberg BNA (May 2016).

Joe Forward, Lawyer a la Carte: Expanded Use of Limited-Scope Representation on the Horizon, State Bar of Wisconsin InsideTrack (August 17, 2011).

Joe Forward, Supreme Court Expands Limited Scope Representation Rules, Gives Lawyers More Guidance, WISBAR News (April 2014)

Joe Forward, Are You Ready? New Limited-Scope Representation Rules Take Effect in 2015, State Bar of Wisconsin Inside Track (November 5, 2014).

Mark Friedman, Arkansas Access to Justice Commission Pushes to Unbundle Legal Services, Arkansas Business (October 23, 2017).

Jacques Gallant, Concept of 'unbundled' legal services gaining support, (January 26, 2017).

Edward M. Ginsburg, Commentary: Ways to Make Legal Fees More Affordable for the Public, Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly (March 9, 2009).

Sam Glover, Weekend Project: Unbundling, a Thought Experiment, Lawyerist (October 14, 2016)

Jona Goldschmidt, How Are Courts Handling Pro Se Litigants, American Judicature Society, Vol. 82 at 13 (July/August 1998).

Jona Goldschmidt, In Defense of Ghostwriting, 29 Fordham Urban L J 1145 (2002).

Jona Goldschmidt, The Pro Se Litigant's Struggle for Access to Justice: Meeting the Challenge of Bench and Bar Resistance, 40 Family Court Rev 36 (2002).

Marie Grady and Thomas B. Scheffey, Providing Legal Help on a la Carte Basis, The Connecticut Law Tribune (July 2011).

Richard S. Granat, eLawyering: Providing More Efficient Legal Services With Today’s Technology, New York State Bar Journal (September 2008).

Richard S. Granat, The Opportunity of Unbundling Legal Services to Your Practice, Legal Ink Magazine (August 2014)

Richard S. Granat, Unbundling Legal Services: Protecting Yourself from Malpractice Claims, Legal Ink Magazine (October 2014)

Richard S. Granat, "Best Practices" in Offering Limited Legal Services, Legal Ink Magazine (November 2014)

John Greacen, Legal Information vs. Legal Advice: Developments During the Last Five Years, American Judicature Society, Vol. 84, at198 (January/February 2001).

John Greacen, No Legal Advice from Court Personnel: What Does That Mean?, 34 Judges' Journal 10 (Winter 1995).

John Greacen, Self-Represented Litigants and Court and Legal Services Responses to Their Needs: What We Know, (2002).

David Grunfeld, Ghostwriting: Limited Scope Agreements Are Allowed Under Pennsylvania Rules of Professional Conduct, The Philadelphia Lawyer (Spring 2012).

Helen W. Gunnarsson, Unbundling Explained, Illinois Bar Journal (October 2010).

Samson Habte, Contract Lawyer May ‘Ghostwrite’ Pleading Without Notice to Court, Opposing Counsel, Bloomberg BNA (April 2014)

Paula L. Hannaford-Agor, Helping the Pro Se Litigant: A Changing Landscape, Court Review, p. 8, (Winter 2003).

Mary Kay Hansen & George D. Lyford, Limited Scope Representation, a Handy Tool for DIY Litigants, The Nebraska Lawyer (November/December 2010).

Paul D. Healey, In Search of The Delicate Balance: Legal and Ethical Questions in Assisting the Pro Se Patron, 90 Law Library J. 129 (1998).

Beth M. Henschen, Lessons from the Country – Serving Self-Represented Litigants in Rural Jurisdictions, (2002).

Helen Hierschbiel, The Ethics of Unbundling: How to Avoid the Land Mines of "Discrete Task Representation,"  Oregon State Bar Bulletin (July 2007)

Amber Hollister, Unbundling Legal Services: Limiting the Scope of Representation, Oregon State Bar Bulletin (July 2011).

William Hornsby, Defining the Role of Lawyers in Pro Se Litigation, 41 Judges' Journal (Fall 2002).

William Hornsby, Improving the Delivery of Affordable Legal Services Through the Internet: A Blueprint for the Shift to a Digital Paradigm, ABA Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services (November 1999).

William Hornsby, Unbundling and the Lawyer's Duty of Care, American Bar Association Family Advocate (Fall 2012)

William Hornsby, Unbundling: The bridge between going it alone and full representation, American Bar Association Bar Leader, Vol. 40 No. 3 (January/February 2016)

Len Horton, Supreme Court’s Legal Needs Study: Changing Georgia’s Civil Justice System, Georgia Bar Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1 at 56 (August 2008)

Bonnie Hough, Self-Represented Litigants in Family Law: The Response of California’s Courts, California Law Review (January 2010)

David L. Hudson Jr., If you think a seeming pro se litigant has a lawyer, ask to confirm, ABA ethics opinion says (ABA Journal, November 30, 2015)

David L. Hudson Jr. ABA opinion gives guidelines for communicating with people receiving limited-scope representation (ABA Journal, March 2016)

David A. Hyman and Charles Silver, And Such Small Portions: Limited Performance Agreements and the Cost/Quality/Access Trade-Off, 11 Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 959 (1998).

Hon. Michael B. Hyman, Why judges should embrace limited scope representation, Illinois State Bar Association Bench & Bar (April 2014)

Robert L. Jeffs, The Pro Se Quandary, Utah Bar Journal (November/December 2010)

Mark Johnson, Professionally Permissible Piecework, Washington State Bar News, Vol. 63 No. 2, at 9 (February 2009).

Mark Johnson Roberts, Not So Impractical: Ethics Considerations in Limited Scope Representations, Oregon State Bar Bulletin, pg. 9 (October 2016)

Judge Mark A. Juhas, A Judge's View on the Benefits of Unbundling, California Bar Journal (July 2015)

Stephanie Kimbro, The Ethics of Unbundling, GPSolo eReport, Vol. 1, No. 3 (October 2011).

Stephani Kimbro, Serving the DIY Client: A Guide to Unbundling Legal Services for the Private Practitioner, (2011)

Stephanie Kimbro, Unbundling: What Is It? American Bar Association Family Advocate (June 2012)

Stephanie Kimbro, Offer Unbundled Legal Services to Compete in Today’s Legal Market, Lawyerist, (September 4, 2014)

Geoff Kirbyson, Get it in writing for law a la carteThe Lawyers Weekly, (August 14, 2015)

Rochelle Klempner, Unbundled Legal Services in Litigated Matters in New York State: A Proposal to Test the Efficacy Through Law School Clinics, Working Paper, Partners in Justice Colloquium (May 2005).

Evan Koslow, 3 important benefactors of limited scope representationThe Daily Record (June 26, 2017).

Tamara M. Kurtzman, The Implications of Ghostwriting in State and Federal Courts (Los Angeles Lawyer, March 2016, Pg. 11)

Catherine J. Lanctot, Attorney-Client Relationships in Cyberspace: The Perils and the Promise, 49 Duke L J 147 (1999).

Adam W. Lasker, New supreme court rules a boon to limited-scope representation, Illinois Bar Journal (August 2013)

Rebecca A. Lewis, Providing Unbundled Legal Services, Wyoming Lawyer (February 2010).

Marcus J. Lock, Increasing Access to Justice: Expanding the Role of Nonlawyers in the Delivery of Legal Services to Low-Income Coloradoans, 72 Univ. Colorado L Rev 459 (Spring 2001).

Ellen Lockwood, Ethical Considerations of Limited Scope Representation, Texas Paralegal Journal (Spring 2017).

Donald R. Lundberg, Unbundled Legal Services or Limited Scope Representation, Res Gestae (June 2008).

Alexandra MacKay, John Blankenship and Elizabeth Todaro, Rule Changes Advance Access to Justice, Tennessee Bar Association (January 1, 2013).

Barbara Madsen, Professionalism and the Pro Se Problem, Bar News (August 2011).

Judith Maute and Kade McClure, Making a Difference in Oklahoma, The Oklahoma Bar Journal, Vol. 80, No.1 at 64 (January 2009).

James M. McCauley, Current Ethical and Unauthorized Practice Issues Relating to Endeavors to Assist Pro Se Litigants, Virginia Lawyer, Vol. 51, p. 43 (December 2002).

Elizabeth McCulloch, Let Me Show You How: Pro Se Divorce Courses and Client Power, 48 Florida L Rev 481 (1996).

Judith G. McMullen, Pro Se Trends and Divorce in Wisconsin, Wisconsin Lawyer, Vol. 83, No. 6 (June 2010).

Judith G. McMullen and Debra Oswald, Why Do We Need a Lawyer?: An Empirical Study of Divorce Cases, Journal of Law & Family Studies, Vol. 12,  at 57 (2010).

Mary Helen McNeal, Redefining Attorney-Client Roles: Unbundling and Moderate Income Elderly Clients, 32 Wake Forest L Rev 295 (Summer 1997).

Beverly Michaelis, Unbundling in the 21st Century: How to Reduce Malpractice Exposure while Meeting Client Needs, Oregon State Bar Bulletin, (August/September 2010)

Michael Millemann, et al., Rethinking the Full-Service Representation Model: A Maryland Experiment, Clearinghouse Review (March/April 1997).

Nicole Cudiamat Minnis, Improving Access to Justice – “Unbundling” Legal Services in Illinois, The National Law Review (August 2013)

Monte T. Mollere, A Continuum of Legal Services: Can 100% Access be Achieved Through Diversified Programming? Louisiana Bar Journal (Dec. 2016/Jan. 2017)

Brooke Moore, The Middle Class, An Untapped Legal Marketplace, ABA Law Practice Today (December 14, 2016) 

Forrest S. Mosten, Unbundling Legal Services in 2014: Recommendations for the Courts, The Judges Journal, Vol. 53 No. 1, (Winter 2014)

Forrest S. Mosten, Unbundled Services to Enhance Peacemaking for Divorcing Families, Family Court Review, Vol. 53 No. 3, (July 2015) 439–448

Forrest S. Mosten, Unbundling of the Legal Services and the Family Lawyer, 38 Family Law Quarterly 421 (November 3, 1994).

Forrest S. Mosten, Unbundled Legal Services Today -- And Predictions for the Future, American Bar Association Family Advocate (Fall 2012).

Forrest S. Mosten and Lara Traum, It Takes a Village: Using Seniors to Help Divorcing Families, Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution [Vol. 17:767 2016].

Katie Mulvaney, Rhode Island Supreme Court ruling opens door for legal help, Providence Journal (June 22, 2015).

Unbundled Services — Assisting the Pro Se Litigant, New Hampshire Bar Association Ethics Committee (May 12, 1999).

John Nickerson, Self lawyering made easier by new rule, attorneys say, (March 2014)

Christian Nolan, Website Changes to Help Pro Se Litigants, Connecticut Law Tribune (July 14, 2010).

Andrea Nordick, Leveling the Playing Field for Pro Se Litigants, Hennepin Lawyer (December 2009).

Kevin M.P. O'Grady, Making the Limited-Scope Relationship Work, American Bar Association Family Advocate (Fall 2012)

Christina P. O’Neill, Law a la Carte, Massachusetts Lawyers Journal, Vol. 17, No. 10 (July 2010).

Leigh Perkins, Unbundling Your Services Makes Some Clients Happy, Lawyers Weekly USA (December 18, 1995).

John T. Phipps, New Limited Scope Legal Representation Rule Gives Solo and Small Firm Practitioners Special Opportunity to Expand Practice with Unbundled Legal Services, ISBA General Practice, Solo & Small Firm, Vol. 38, No. 5 (March 2010).

Carl A. Pierce, When Less Legal Service May Mean More Access to Justice: Limited Scope Representation for Self-Represented Litigants, Tennessee Bar Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2005).

Charles L. Pierce, Limited Scope Representation in Family Law, The Iowa Lawyer, pg. 16 (April 2016)

Timothy J. Pierce, Ethics 2000: Unbundling Legal Services, Wisconsin Lawyer (February 2005).

Kim Prochnau, Slicing the Onion: Rules of Professional Conduct and Court Rules Make It Easier for Private and Non-Profit Legal Practitioners to Provide "Unbundled" Legal Servcies , Washington State Bar News (April 2003).

Eileen Pruett and Bert Tiger Whitehead, Limited scope representation: A new way of thinking about accessible legal servicesOhio Lawyer (September/October 2016) 

Tina L. Rasnow, Access to Justice Conference, Traveling Justice: Providing Court Based Pro Se Assistance to Limited Access Communities, 29 Fordham Urban L J 1281 (2002).

Sara Rittman, Limited Scope Representation a/k/a Unbundled Legal Services, Missouri Supreme Court Legal Ethics Counsel (September 29, 2008).

Mark Johnson Roberts, Unbundling Legal Services: New Trial Court Rule Supports Access to JusticeOregon State Bar Bulletin (January 2018)

John C. Rothermich, Ethical and Procedural Implications of "Ghostwriting" for Pro Se Litigants: Toward Increased Access to Civil Justice, 67 Fordham L Rev 2687 (1999).

Alexander R. Rothrock, Limited Scope and Lawyer Liability: How courts view the lawyer's role in unbundling, American Bar Association Family Advocate (Fall 2012)

Kathleen M. Sampson, Meeting the Pro Se Challenge: An Update, American Judicature Society, Vol. 84, at 326 (May/June 2001).

John Sheldon and Peter Murray, Rethinking the Rules of Evidentiary Admissibility in Non-Jury Trials, American Judicature Society, Vol. 86, No. 5, at 227 (March/April 2003).

Carol A. Sigmond, Letter from the President of New York County Lawyers' Association: Unbundling Legal Services, Metropolitan Corporate Counsel, (August 27, 2015).

Effie D. Silva, Diverging Views on Ghostwriting Documents for Pro Se Litigants, Litigation News (July 6, 2010).

Hon. Scott W. Skavdahl, Access to Justice: A Judge’s Perspective, Wyoming Lawyer, Vol. 32, No. 1 (February 2009).

Kevin Slator, A Look at Limited Scope Legal Assistance, Minnesota Lawyer (December 1, 2008).

Diane Slomowitz, BRIEFS FOR THE BRIEF WRITER: Ghostwriting a scary, gray area, Wisconsin Law Journal (October 16, 2014)

Sara Smith and Will Hornsby, Unbundled Legal Services: At the tipping-point?, ABA Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services (April 2018)

Tara L. Smith Ruesga, Cooperative or Collaborative Practice Models: Using ADR to Meet Clients' Needs for Unbundling, American Bar Association Family Advocate (Fall 2012)

Hon. Beverly W. Snukals and Glen H. Sturtevant, Jr., Pro Se Litigation: Best Practices from a Judge’s Perspective, 42 University of Richmond Law Review 2 (2007).

Robert J. Spagnoletti, Small Income Equals Little Access , Washington Lawyer, Vol. 23, No.4 (December 2008).

Deborah G. Spanic, Virtual Law Office: An Option for Lawyers in Transition, New Lawyers, Wisconsin Inside Track (March 3, 2010).

Emily K. Spitzer, The Ethics of Unbundling Legal Services in America: Revisiting Legal Ethics at the Turn of the Millennium, (2002).

John P. Stanoch, Working with Pro Se Litigants: The Minnesota Experience, 24 William Mitchell Law Review 297 (1998).

Carlton D. Stansbury, All Family Law Parties Need Access to Justice, Wisconsin Journal of Family Law (Summer 2009).

Carlton D. Stansbury, As Family Law Changes, So Should the Judiciary, Wisconsin Journal of Family Law (Spring 2009).

Joel Stashenko, Value of 'Limited-Scope' Representation to Civil Litigants Formally Noted by NY Courts, New York Law Journal (December 16, 2016)

Ronald W. Staudt and Paula L. Hannaford, Access to Justice for The Self-Represented Litigant: An Interdisciplinary Investigation by Designers and Lawyers, Scholarly Commons @ IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law (March 2002)

Camille Stell, CYA Corner: Unbundled Service Does Not Mean Unnecessary Risks, The Advocate (June 2011). NBCA Members Only.

Virginia Sudbury, Unbundled in Utah, Utah Bar Journal (November 2008).

Gary E. Sullivan and Jessica E. Zorn, Bankruptcy and Unbundling: Oil and Water? The Alabama Lawyer, pg. 344 (September 2016)


Elizabeth A. Sykes and Sue Allison, Help May Be on the Way for Self-Represented Litigants, Tennessee Bar Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2005).

Sue Talia, Roadmap for Implementing a Successful Unbundling Program, American Judicature Society (2005).

Patrick Tandy, New Rule Changes Outline Limited Scope Representation, Maryland State Bar Association Bar Bulletin (October 13, 2015).

Kenneth J. Theisen, Unbundling Legal Services Will Expand Aid to the Poor, Daily Journal (Jan. 15, 2002).

Art Thompson, Report on Limited Representation Pilot Projects (April 2011).

Janice Tibbetts, Top Judge Adds Voice to Debate Over Legal Fees, Canwest News Service (February 8, 2009).

Charles R. Toy, Justice for Whom?, Michigan Bar Journal (May 2010).

Louise Trubek, Context and Collaboration: Family Law Innovation and Professional Autonomy, 67 Fordham L Rev 2533 (1999).

Suzanne Valdez, Addressing the Pro Se Litigant Challenge in Kansas State Courts, The Journal of the Kansas Bar Association (April 2009).

Bradley A. Vauter, Unbundling: Filling the Gap, Michigan Bar Journal, Vol. 79, at 1688 (2000).

Angie Wagenhals, MLSA using the power of limited scope to bridge access to justice gap in Montana, Montana Lawyer, pg. 11 (August 2016)

Angie Wagenhals, With MLSA’s phone-advice program, attorneys can do the Montana public good — in just 1 hour, Montana Lawyer (June/July 2017)

Thomas J. Watson, 10 Tips to Unbundle Legal Services, Wisconsin Lawyer, Vol. 83, No.3 (March 2010).

John E. Whitfield, The Next Step in “Unbundling”: The Case for Limited Scope RepresentationVirginia Lawyer Magazine (October 2016).

Robert B. Yegge, Divorce Litigants Without Lawyers: The Crisis for Bench and Bar Needs Answers Now, 33 Judges' Journal (Spring 1994).

Lisa Young, Limited Scope Representation: An Experiment in San Diego Housing Court, Unpublished paper (2008).

Fred. C. Zacharias, Limited Performance Agreements: Should Clients Get What They Pay For? 11 Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 915 (1998).

Anthony Zapata, Legal Ghostwriting in Indiana: An Analysis, Res Gestae (September 2005).

Richard Zorza, Self-Represented Litigants and the Access to Justice Revolution in the State Courts: Cross-Pollinating Perspectives Toward a Dialogue for Innovation in the Courts and the Administrative System, Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary, Vol. 29, Issue 1, Art. 3, at 63 (March 2009)