Adapted from Hart, R. (1992). Children's Participation: from Tokenism to Citizenship. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
8) Youth-Initiated, Shared Decisions with Adults
This happens when projects or programs are initiated by youth and decision-making is shared between youth and adults. These projects empower youth while at the same time enabling them to access and learn from the life experience and expertise of adults.
7) Youth-Initiated and Directed
Youth initiate and direct a project or program. Adults are involved in a strictly supportive role.
6) Adult-Initiated, Shared Decisions with Youth
Projects or programs are initiated by adults but the decision-making is shared with the youth.
5) Consulted and Informed
Youth give advice on projects or programs designed and run by adults. The youth are informed about how their input will be used and are told the outcomes of the decisions made by adults.
4) Assigned but Informed
Youth are assigned a specific role and informed about how and why they are being involved.
When youth appear to be given a voice but in fact have little or no choice about what they do or how they participate.
Youth are used to help or "bolster" a cause in a relatively indirect way, although adults do not pretend that the cause is inspired by youth.
Adults use youth to support causes and pretend that the causes are inspired by youth.