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Rapanos v. United States, What Does It Mean?i By M. Reed Hopperii INTRODUCTION The Clean Water Act prohibits the discharge of pollutants, including dredged and fill material, into “navigable waters”iii without a federal permit and defines the term “navigable waters” as “waters of the United States.”iv The Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency interpreted “navigable waters” to cover virtually any area over which water flows, including the shallow “wetlands” on Mr. Rapanos...

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