Criminal Justice Section  

   Standards
 

SENTENCING

In February 1993, the ABA House of Delegates approved these “black letter” standards that have been published with commentary in ABA Standards for Criminal Justice: Sentencing, 3d ed., © 1994 American Bar Association. For the text of the publication, click here. To go directly to individual “black letter” standards (without commentary), click on the links below. For information about purchasing the printed volume, please click here .

 

PART I. Scope of chapter; sentence authorities

Standard 18-1.1     Scope of chapter
Standard 18-1.2     The legislative function
Standard 18-1.3     The intermediate function; guided judicial discretion
Standard 18-1.4     The sentencing function; abolition of jury sentencing; sentencing
                                  councils; appellate review of sentences

PART II. PUBLIC POLICY LEGISLATIVE CHOICES

Standard 18-2.1     Multiple purposes; consequential and retributive approaches
Standard 18-2.2     Types of sanctions authorized
Standard 18-2.3     Costs of criminal sanctions; resources needed
Standard 18-2.4     Severity of sentences generally
Standard 18-2.5     Determinacy and disparity
Standard 18-2.6     Individualization of sentences
Standard 18-2.7     Systemic review

PART III. LEGISLATIVELY AUTHORIZED SENTENCES

Standard 18-3.1     Ordinary offenses and offenders
Standard 18-3.2     Mitigating factors
Standard 18-3.3     Definition of offenses; aggravating factors
Standard 18-3.4     Personal characteristics of individual offenders
Standard 18-3.5     Criminal history; recidivism
Standard 18-3.6     Offense of conviction as basis for sentence
Standard 18-3.7     Convictions of multiple offenses
Standard 18-3.8     Multiple offenses in different jurisdictions
Standard 18-3.9     Acknowledgment of responsibility
Standard 18-3.10   Cooperation with prosecution
Standard 18-3.11   Authorization of sanctions
Standard 18-3.12   Use of authorized sanctions; guidance to sentencing courts
Standard 18-3.13   Compliance programs for individuals
Standard 18-3.14   Compliance programs for organizations
Standard 18-3.15   Restitution or reparation
Standard 18-3.16   Fines
Standard 18-3.17   Community service
Standard 18-3.18   Acknowledgment sanctions
Standard 18-3.19   Intermittent confinement in facility
Standard 18-3.20   Home detention
Standard 18-3.21   Total confinement
Standard 18-3.22   Costs, fees, and assessments

PART IV. THE INTERMEDIATE FUNCTION

Standard 18-4.1   Basic responsibilities of the agency performing the intermediate function
Standard 18-4.2   Establishment of sentencing commission
Standard 18-4.3   Creation of provisions to guide sentence discretion
Standard 18-4.4   Structure of provisions to guide sentence discretion
Standard 18-4.5   Legislative agency to perform the intermediate function
Standard 18-4.6   Judicial agency to perform the intermediate function

PART V. SENTENCING PROCEDURES

Standard 18-5.1   Information for sentence determination and system accountability
Standard 18-5.2   Requirement of report
Standard 18-5.3   Substantiation of information
Standard 18-5.4   Contents of report
Standard 18-5.5   Timing of investigation and report
Standard 18-5.6   Confidentiality of presentence report
Standard 18-5.7   Disclosure of report to parties
Standard 18-5.8   Disputes regarding information in report; stipulations; presentence                                  conferences
Standard 18-5.9   Notice to victims
Standard 18-5.10 Victims’ statements prior to sentencing hearings
Standard 18-5.11  Victims’ statements at sentencing hearings
Standard 18-5.12  Evidentiary effect of victims’ statements
Standard 18-5.13  Designation of sentencing judge
Standard 18-5.14  Time of sentencing
Standard 18-5.15  Notice of possible departure from presumptive sentence
Standard 18-5.16  Consolidation of multiple offenses for sentencing; disposition of other                                   charges
Standard 18-5.17  Sentencing hearing
Standard 18-5.18  Findings of the sentencing court
Standard 18-5.19  Imposition of sentence
Standard 18-5.20  Record of sentencing proceedings
Standard 18-5.21  Sentence reports

PART VI. SENTENCING DISCRETION

Standard 18-6.1   General principles
Standard 18-6.2   Considering types of sanctions; composite sentences
Standard 18-6.3   Using presumptive sentences; mitigating and aggravating factors and                                  personal characteristics of individual offenders; criminal history
Standard 18-6.4   Sentencing to total confinement
Standard 18-6.5   Sentencing for more than one offense

PART VII. CHANGE OF SENTENCE

Standard 18-7.1   Authority to reduce the severity of sentences
Standard 18-7.2   Authority to modify requirements or conditions of sentences in light of                                  changed circumstances
Standard 18-7.3   Legislative authority to resentence offenders for violation of the                                  requirements or conditions of sentences
Standard 18-7.4   Procedures regarding violations of requirements or conditions of                                  sentences

PART VIII. APPELLATE REVIEW OF SENTENCES

Standard 18-8.1   Jurisdiction to review sentences; reviewing courts
Standard 18-8.2   Purposes of appellate review
Standard 18-8.3   Appeals by defense or prosecution
Standard 18-8.4   Disposition by reviewing court

PART IX. DISPUTED TERMS OF TOTAL CONFINEMENT

Standard 18-9.1   Mechanism for resolving disputes about the length of a total confinement                                  sentence

 

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