Criminal Justice Section  

   Standards

Pretrial Release

*The following is the complete Table of Contents with links to the "black letter" standards, which were approved by the American Bar Association's House of Delegates in February 2002. Commentary to accompany the standards is currently being developed. A Third Edition volume of the Standards with commentary is expected to be available in Fall 2005.

Contents

PART I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

Standard 10-1.1   Purposes of the pretrial release decision
Standard 10-1.2   Release under least restrictive conditions; diversion and
                          other alternative release options
Standard 10-1.3   Use of citations and summonses
Standard 10-1.4   Conditions of release
Standard 10-1.5   Pretrial release decision may include diversion and other adjudication
                          alternatives supported by treatment programs
Standard 10-1.6   Detention as an exception to policy favoring release
Standard 10-1.7   Consideration of the nature of the charge in determining release options
Standard 10-1.8   Pretrial release decision should not be influenced by publicity or public
                          opinion
Standard 10-1.9   Implication of policy favoring release for supervision in the community
Standard 10-1.10 The role of the pretrial services agency

PART II. RELEASE BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER ACTING WITHOUT AN ARREST WARRANT

Standard 10-2.1   Policy favoring issuance of citations
Standard 10-2.2   Mandatory issuance of citation for minor offenses
Standard 10-2.3   Permissive authority to issue citations in all cases
Standard 10-2.4   Lawful searches

PART III. ISSUANCE OF SUMMONS IN LIEU OF ARREST

Standard 10-3.1   Authority to issue summons
Standard 10-3.2   Mandatory issuance of summons
Standard 10-3.3   Application for an arrest warrant or summons

PART IV. RELEASE BY JUDICIAL OFFICER AT FIRST APPEARANCE OR ARRAIGNMENT

Standard 10-4.1   Prompt first appearance
Standard 10-4.2   Investigation prior to first appearance: development of background
                          information to support release or detention determination
Standard 10-4.3   Nature of first appearance

PART V. THE RELEASE AND DETENTION DECISIONS

Standard 10-5.1   Release on defendant's own recognizance
Standard 10-5.2   Conditions on release
Standard 10-5.3   Release on financial conditions
Standard 10-5.4   Release order provisions
Standard 10-5.5   Willful failure to appear or to comply with conditions
Standard 10-5.6   Sanctions for violations of conditions of release, including revocation of
                           release
Standard 10-5.7   Bases for temporary pretrial detention for defendants on release
Standard 10-5.8   Grounds for pretrial detention
Standard 10-5.9   Eligibility for pretrial detention and initiation of the detention hearing
Standard 10-5.10  Procedures governing pretrial detention hearings: judicial orders for
                           detention and appellate review
Standard 10-5.11  Requirement for accelerated trial for detained defendants
Standard 10-5.12  Re-examination of the release or detention decision: status reports
                           regarding pretrial detention
Standard 10-5.13  Trial
Standard 10-5.14  Credit for pre-adjudication detention
Standard 10-5.15  Temporary release of a detained defendant for compelling necessity
Standard 10-5.16  Circumstances of confinement of defendants detained pending
                          adjudication