Information for Lawyers: How Paralegals Can Improve Your Practice

Information for Lawyers: How Paralegals Can Improve Your Practice


It's one of the most important skills in practicing law: building an effective work team to serve clients in the best possible manner and generate profits. Paralegals can be a key element in that team, especially in fostering cost efficiency. The information in this section is intended to guide you in the effective utilization of paralegals in your practice.

  • A legal assistant or paralegal is a person, qualified by education, training or work experience who is employed or retained by a lawyer, law office, corporation, governmental agency or other entity and who performs specifically delegated substantive legal work for which a lawyer is responsible. ( ABA House of Delegates, 1997)
  • The titles "paralegal" and "legal assistant" are generally synonymous. One state, California, has a law specifying who may use the title "paralegal," and other states, such as North Carolina and Wisconsin (PDF) are considering similar proposals. Maine, Indiana (PDF) and South Dakota have defined the terms. Maine's definition also carries fines for misuse.
  • Paralegals are qualified to perform their responsibilities by completing an educational program, receiving training on the job, or through actual work experience. They are not licensed as attorneys are.
  • Paralegals perform substantive legal work that would otherwise be done by attorneys. Clerical work is not substantive legal work.
  • Attorneys remain responsible for legal work delegated to paralegals and must supervise paralegals' work.
  • Paralegals work under the supervision of attorneys and are not "document preparers" working directly with the public.
  • Paralegals currently are not licensed as lawyers are, nor subject to any other regulatory scheme. California, however, requires a certain level of education of persons using the title "paralegal."

  • Paralegals can be delegated any task normally performed by a lawyer, as long as the lawyer supervises the work, except those proscribed by law. See the ABA Model Guidelines for the Utilization of Paralegal Services (PDF).
  • For example, paralegals can review and organize client files, conduct factual and legal research, prepare documents for legal transactions, draft pleadings and discovery notices, interview clients and witnesses, and assist at closings and trials.
  • Paralegals must avoid the unauthorized practice of law. Generally, paralegals may not represent clients in court, take depositions, or sign pleadings.
  • Some federal and state administrative agencies, however, do permit nonlawyer practice. See, for example, Social Security Administration. Check with specific agency to determine whether nonlawyer practice is authorized.
  • Paralegals may not establish the attorney's relationship with the client or set fees to be charged, and may not give legal advice to a client. See, Guideline 3 of the ABA Model Guidelines for the Utilization of Paralegal Services (PDF).
  • Typical tasks delegated to paralegals in various areas of the law are described on the websites of national paralegal associations, such as the National Association of Paralegals (NALA), the National Federation of Paralegal Associations and the International Paralegal Management Association (formerly known as the Legal Assistant Management Association) (LAMA).
  • Your costs would be reduced.
  • You would be able to lower your legal fees.
  • Your clients would also appreciate increased contact with your practice through your paralegal.
  • Paralegals enhance the ability of law firms to provide more pro bono legal services just as they do paid services.
  • Attorneys should facilitate the participation of paralegals in a practice's pro bono activities. See, Guideline 10 of the ABA Model Guidelines for the Utilization of Paralegal Services (PDF).
  • Paralegal associations recognize the value of pro bono activities and encourage their members to provide such services.

  • Lawyers are ultimately responsible for the work product of paralegals.
  • Lawyers are responsible for the ethical conduct of the paralegals whom they employ. Any transgressions by the paralegals may subject the lawyer to professional discipline. See, Rule 5.3 of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct.
  • Lawyers who supervise paralegals must develop, implement, and enforce policies to ensure that paralegals understand how their conduct must conform to lawyer's professional obligations. See, Rule 5.3 of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct.
  • Many state bar associations have adopted guidelines for the utilization of paralegals. These guidelines often include commentary describing specifically authorized or proscribed local practices. For example, there is a split of opinion on whether paralegals may attend real estate closings unaccompanied by a lawyer.
  • See chapter 8 in Paralegals, Profitability, and the Future of Your Law Practice , by Arthur G. Greene and Therese A. Cannon.
  • Unethical conduct by paralegals has a direct impact on a lawyer's practice. See The Legal Assistant's Practical Guide to Professional Responsibility.

  • Screening of a paralegal who has a conflict with a client's interest was endorsed by the ABA in Informal Opinion 88-1521.
  • Imputed disqualification does not apply to nonlawyers, including paralegals, according to the new Comment 4 to Rule 1.10 of the recently revised ABA Model Rules.
  • Courts and bar associations that have addressed this issue generally agree with this principle. Only Kansas prohibits the use of screens for both lawyers and nonlawyers.
  • Your paralegal's substantive legal work (i.e., not clerical work) may be billed directly to the client just as an attorney's work is billed, or considered in setting a flat fee just as an attorney's work would be.
  • A profitable paralegal generates more revenue than it costs to maintain the paralegal.
  • A financial analysis should take into account the paralegal's direct and indirect contributions (both revenues from paralegal hours and the benefits from shifting routine work to a paralegal and leaving more complex work to an attorney).
  • A quick test of profitability is the "Rule of Three": the paralegal generates revenue three times his or her salary.
  • See chapter 2 (pages 13-17) in Paralegals, Profitability, and the Future of Your Law Practice , by Arthur G. Greene and Therese A. Cannon.
  • This depends on whether your paralegal would be classified as an exempt or nonexempt employee.
  • Nonexempt employees are entitled to overtime compensation under the Fair Labor Standards Act and similar state laws.
  • Paralegals as a group may not be classified as exempt, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, because they are not required to have advanced professional knowledge acquired through prolonged, specialized instruction and study, and are not generally involved in the performance of duties that require the exercise of discretion and independent judgment.
  • The Department of Labor's new regulations on overtime pay, effective August 24, 2004, do not change its position. Also, the professional exemption provision specifically addresses the status of paralegals in Subpart D, §541.301(e)(7).

  • Determine the appropriate functions and desired qualifications of a paralegal for your practice.
  • Contact paralegal education programs. An ABA-approved paralegal program has met the stringent quality Guidelines established by the Standing Committee on Paralegals.
  • Contact national and local paralegal associations, such as NALA, NFPA or NALS. Most list jobs at no cost to the employer. Some also maintain resume banks, such as the AAPI Job Bank or the LAMA Job Bank.
  • Advertise in newspapers and list openings on web sites.
  • Interview carefully, verify credentials, and check references.
  • See chapter 6 in Paralegals, Profitability, and the Future of Your Law Practice , by Arthur G. Greene and Therese A. Cannon.
  • You want a person with excellent organizational skills, who is detail minded and able to multi-task.
  • Good communication skills, both oral and written, are essential.
  • A paralegal with a genuine interest in law and empathy with clients' problems will be a valuable member of the legal team.

  • Educational programs for parlalegals vary. These programs may or may not be approved or accredited.
  • Educational programs affiliated with a college or university may offer associate's degrees, bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and/or certificates, which may be undergraduate or post-baccalaureate certificates. Proprietary schools generally offer certificate programs.
  • Educational programs approved by the American Bar Association must satisfy the stringent requirements of the approval process (552K) supervised by the ABA's Standing Committee on Paralegals. These include a minimum of 60 semester hours of study (18 semester hours must be designed specifically to develop paralegal skills), extensive reports and periodic site visits. An ABA-approved paralegal education program has undergone a rigorous scrutiny of its curriculum, faculty, recruiting and admission practices, library and computer resources, student services, and other aspects of the program.
  • The American Association for Paralegal Education (AAfPE), the National Federation of Paralegal Associations (NFPA), the National Association of Paralegals (NALA), and the American Alliance of Paralegals (AAPI) have developed list of core competencies for paralegals.

Updated: 09/05/2013

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