Programs by Category

Post J.D. Programs by Category

Admiralty/Marine Affairs/Ocean and Coastal
Charleston School of Law, LL.M.
Miami, University of, LL.M.
Tulane University, LL.M.

Advanced Legal Studies
Albany Law School, LL.M.; M.S.
Arizona State, LL.M.
New England Law/Boston, LL.M. (for international lawyers)
San Diego, University of, M.S.

Advocacy
California Western School of Law,
Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M.
Faulkner University, LL.M.
Georgetown University, LL.M.
Mississippi College, LL.M.
Stetson University, LL.M.

Agriculture and Food Law
University of Arkansas-Fayetteville, LL.M.
Vermont Law School, M.S.; LL.M.

Air and Space Law
Mississippi, University of, LL.M.
Nebraska, University of, LL.M., LL.M. online, J.S.D.

American Law
Boston University, LL.M.
Brigham Young University, LL.M.
Brooklyn Law School, LL.M. 
Duquesne University, LL.M.
Florida State University, LL.M.
Indiana University-Indianapolis, LL.M. 
Minnesota, University of, LL.M.
North Carolina, University of, LL.M.
Oklahoma City University, LL.M.
Saint Louis University, LL.M. 
Syracuse, LL.M.
Temple University, LL.M.
Tulsa, University of, LL.M.
Wake Forest University, LL.M.

American Legal Studies
Barry University (for international lawyers), LL.M.
Charlotte School of Law, LL.M.
Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, M.S.
Hofstra University, LL.M.
Kansas, University of, LL.M.
Michigan State University, M.J.
Mississippi College of Law, LL.M.  
Regent University, LL.M.
St. Mary's University, LL.M.
Seattle University, LL.M.
Texas Tech University, LL.M.
Thomas Jefferson Law School, LL.M.
Touro College, LL.M.
Vermont Law School, LL.M.

American Legal System
Cincinnati, University of, LL.M.
Michigan State University, LL.M.
William & Mary Law School, LL.M.

American Law Practice
University of Denver, LL.M.

Animal Law
Lewis & Clark College, LL.M.

Appellate Advocacy
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.

As Approved
California, University of-Los Angeles, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Georgetown University, S.J.D.
Indiana University-Bloomington, LL.M.; Ph.D.
Louisiana State University, D.C.L.; LL.M.
Michigan, University of, LL.M.; M.C.L.; S.J.D.
Northwestern University, LL.M.; M.S.L.; S.J.D.
Pennsylvania, University of, LL.M.; M.C.L.; S.J.D.
Pittsburgh, University of, S.J.D.
Stanford University, J.S.D.
Suffolk University, S.J.D.
Vanderbilt University, LL.M.
Wisconsin, University of, LL.M.; M.L.I.; S.J.D.

Asian Law
Temple University, LL.M.

Asian and Comparative Law
Washington, University of, LL.M.; Ph.D.

Banking and Finance Law
Boston University, LL.M.
Chicago-Kent School of Law, LL.M.
Fordham University, LL.M.
Wayne State University, LL.M.
WMU Thomas M. Cooley Law School, LL.M.
Widener University, LL.M.

Bankruptcy Law
St. John's University, LL.M.

Biotechnology and Genomics
Arizona State University, LL.M.

Business Law
Arizona State University, Certificate
California, University of-Los Angeles, LL.M.
Capital University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M.
Loyola University-Chicago, L.L.M.; M.J.
New York Law School, LL.M. 
San Diego, University of, LL.M.
Suffolk University Law School, LL.M.
Tulane University, LL.M.
Western New England University, LL.M.
Widener University Delaware Law School, M.J.; D.L.; S.J.D.

Child and Family Law
Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M.
Hofstra University, LL.M.
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.; M.J.

Clinical Fellowship Program
University of Denver, LL.M.

Commerce and Technology
New Hampshire, University of, LL.M.

Communications Law
Catholic University, LL.M.
Michigan State University, LL.M.

Comparative Law/Comparative Legal Studies/Comparative Legal Thought
Alabama, University of, LL.M.
California Western School of Law, LL.M., M.C.L.
Cardozo School of Law, LL.M.
Duke University, LL.M.
Florida, University of, LL.M.
Fordham University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M. 
Indiana University-Bloomington, M.C.L.
Indiana University-Indianapolis, LL.M.
Iowa, University of, LL.M. 
Miami, University of, LL.M.
Notre Dame Law School, LL.M.
Pace University, LL.M.
Penn State University, LL.M.
Pittsburgh, University of, LL.M.
St. Mary's University, LL.M.
Samford University, M.C.L.
San Diego, University of, LL.M.
San Francisco, University of, LL.M.
Santa Clara University, LL.M.
Southern Methodist University, LL.M.
Southern California, University of, M.C.L.
Tulane University, M.C.L.
Washington, University of, LL.M.; Ph.D.

Corporate Law/Corporate Governance/Corporate Compliance 
Fordham University, LL.M.; M.S.L.
New York University, LL.M.
San Diego, University of, LL.M.
Stanford University, LL.M.
Wayne State University, LL.M.
WMU Thomas M. Cooley Law School, LL.M.
Widener University Delaware Law School, D.L.; LL.M.; M.J,; S.J.D.

Criminal Law
University of Arkansas-Fayetteville, Certificate
Buffalo, University at, LL.M.
Case Western Reserve University, LL.M. (International)
New Hampshire, University of, LL.M.; M.A.S. (International)
St. Mary's University (international), LL.M.

Democratic Governance and Rule of Law
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.
Ohio Northern University, LL.M. 

Dispute Resolution
Faulkner University, LL.M.
Fordham University, LL.M.
George Washington, LL.M.
Inter-American University, LL.M. 
The John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.
Missouri, University of, LL.M
Oregon, University of, M.A.; M.S.
Pepperdine University, M.D.R., LL.M.
Willamette University College of Law, LL.M.
Yeshiva University, LL.M.

Economic Law
George Mason University, LL.M.
Georgetown University, LL.M.
New York University, LL.M.
Stanford University, LL.M.

Education Law
Nova Southeastern University, M.S.L.

Elder Law
Kansas, University of, LL.M.
Stetson University, LL.M.; M.J.
Western New England University, LL.M. 

Employee Benefits
The John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.; M.S.

Energy, Environment/Natural Resources
Connecticut, University of, LL.M.
Denver, University of, LL.M.; M.R.L.S. 
Florida, University of, LL.M.
Florida State University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M.
Georgetown University, LL.M.
Golden Gate University, LL.M.
Houston, University of, LL.M.
Lewis and Clark College, LL.M.; M.S.L.
New York University, LL.M.
Oklahoma, University of, LL.M. 
Oregon, University of, LL.M.
Pace University, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Pacific-McGeorge, University of the, LL.M.; J.S.D. 
St. Thomas University (Florida), LL.M.
Tulane University, LL.M.
Tulsa, University of, LL.M.; M.J.E.L.
Utah, University of, LL.M.
Vermont Law School, LL.M.; M.E.L.P.; M.E.R.L.; M.S.E.L.
West Virginia University, LL.M.

Entertainment, Arts & Sports
University of Miami

Entertainment and Media Law
California-Los Angeles, University of, LL.M. 
Southwestern Law School, LL.M.

Entrepreneurship and Law
Duke University, LL.M.

Estate Planning
Golden Gate University, LL.M.
Miami, University of, LL.M.
Missouri-Kansas City, University of, J.D.; LL.M.
The John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M. 
Western New England University, LL.M.; M.S.

Experiential Law Teaching
Pacific, University of the, LL.M.

Fashion Law
Fordham University, LL.M.; M.S.L.

Federal Criminal Practice & Procedure
Mercer University, LL.M.

Financial Services
Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M.
New York Law School, LL.M.
Thomas Jefferson Law School, J.S.D.; J.S.M.; LL.M.

Foreign Scholars Program
Houston, University of, LL.M.

Forensic Justice
West Virginia University, LL.M.

Gaming Law & Regulation
Nevada, University of

General
Alabama, University of, LL.M.; J.S.D. 
American University, S.J.D.
Appalachian, J.M.
Arizona, University of, B.A.; LL.M.
Arizona State University, LL.M.
Boston College, LL.M.
Buffalo, University at, LL.M.
California-Berkeley, University of, LL.M.; J.S.D.
California-Hastings, University of, M.S.L.
California Western School of Law, LL.M.
Case Western Reserve University, S.J.D.
Catholic University, M.L.S.
Chapman University , LL.M.
Chicago, University of, D.C.L.; LL.M.; S.J.D.; M.C.L.; M.L.S.
Cleveland State University, LL.M.
Colorado, University of, LL.M.; M.S.L.
Columbia University, J.S.D.; LL.M.
Cornell Law School, J.S.D.; LL.M. 
Denver, University of, M.L.S.
DePaul University, M.J.
District of Columbia, University of, LL.M.
Drake University, LL.M.; M.J.
Drexel University, LL.M.
Emory University, LL.M.
Florida Coastal School of Law, LL.M.; M.S.L.
Florida International University, LL.M.
Florida State University, J.M.
Fordham University, LL.M.; S.J.D.
George Washington University, LL.M.; S.J.D. 
Georgetown University, LL.M.; M.S.L.
Georgia, University of, LL.M.; M.L.S.
Georgia State University, LL.M.
Hamline University, LL.M.; M.S.L. 
Harvard University, LL.M.
Hawaii, University of, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Illinois, University of, J.S.D.; LL.M.
Indiana University-Indianapolis, M.J.; S.J.D.
Iowa, University of,LL.M.; M.S.L.; .S.J.D.
John Marshall Law School, M.J.
Kansas, University of, S.J.D.
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.
Loyola Law School-Los Angeles, J.S.D.; M.L.S.; M.S.
Loyola University-New Orleans, LL.M.
Maine, University of, M.S.; LL.M.; J.S.D.
Maryland, University of, LL.M.; M.L.S.
Minnesota, University of, S.J.D.
Mississippi College, LL.M.
Missouri-Kansas City, University of, LL.M.
Nebraska, University of, M.L.S.
New York University, LL.M.; J.S.D.
Northeastern University, LL.M.
Northwestern University, LL.M.; M.S.
Ohio State University, LL.M.; M.S.L.
Oklahoma, University of, LL.M.
Oregon, University of, LL.M.
Pacific, University of the, M.S.L.
Pennsylvania, University of, LL.M.
Penn State, The Dickinson School of Law, S.J.D.
Pittsburgh, University of, LL.M.
Regent University, LL.M.
Richmond, University of (for international lawyers), LL.M.
Roger Williams University, M.S.L.
St. Mary's University, M.J.
San Diego, University of, LL.M.
Southern California, University of, LL.M.; LL.M. online; M.S.L.
Southern Illinois University, LL.M.; M.L.S.
Southern Methodist University, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Southwestern Law School, LL.M.
Suffolk Law Schools, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Syracruse, University of, LL.M.
Temple University, LL.M.
Texas, University of, LL.M.
Thomas Jefferson School of Law, J.S.D.
Touro College, LL.M.
Tulane University, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Valparaiso University, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Virginia, University of, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Wake Forest University, M.S.L.; S.J.D.
Washburn University, M.S.
Washington University, LL.M.; M.J.
WMU Thomas Cooley Law School, LL.M.
Widener University Delaware Law School, LL.M.; M.J.
William Mitchell College of Law, LL.M. 
Yale University, LL.M.; J.S.D.; Ph.D.
Yeshiva University, J.S.D.; LL.M.

Global Competition Law
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M., M.J.

Global Food Law
Michigan State University, LL.M.; M.J.

Global Legal Studies
Case Western University, LL.M.
John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.; M.S.
Washburn University, LL.M.

Government/Public Policy/Law and Government
Albany Law School, LL.M.
American University, LL.M.
Creighton University, M.S.
George Washington University, LL.M.
Pacific-McGeorge, University of the, LL.M.

Health Law
Albany Law School, LL.M.
California-Hastings, University of, M.S.
California Western School of Law, M.A.S.
DePaul University, LL.M.; Certificate
Georgetown University, LL.M.
Florida Coastal School of Law, LL.M.
Hofstra University, LL.M.; M.A.
Houston, University of, LL.M.
Indiana University-Indianapolis, LL.M.
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.; M.J.; S.J.D.
Nova Southeastern University, M.S.L.
Quinnipiac University, LL.M.
Saint Louis University, LL.M.
Samford University, M.S.
Seton Hall University, LL.M.; M.J.S.
Southern Illinois University, LL.M.; M.L.S.
Washington, University of, LL.M. 
Widener University Delaware Law School, LL.M.; S.J.D.; M.J.; D.L

Human Resources
Saint Louis University, M.S.

Human Rights 
American University, LL.M.
Connecticut, University of, LL.M.
Iowa, University of, Certificate
Notre Dame Law School, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Regent University, LL.M.
St. Thomas University (Florida), LL.M.; J.S.D.

Immigration Law
Texas Southern University, LL.M.

Indigenous Law
Arizona, University of, LL.M.; M.P.S.; S.J.D.
Oklahoma, University of, LL.M. 
Tulsa, University of, LL.M.; M.J. 

Information Technology
Dayton, University of, LL.M.; M.L.S.
Fordham University, LL.M.
New Hampshire, University of , LL.M.
John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.
Suffolk University, LL.M.; S.J.D.

Information Law and Society
Brooklyn Law School, LL.M.

Insurance Law
Connecticut, University of, LL.M.
WMU Thomas M. Cooley Law School, LL.M.

Intellectual Property
Akron, University of, LL.M.
Albany Law School, LL.M.
American University, LL.M.
Boston University, LL.M. 
Case Western Reserve University, LL.M.
Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M.
Dayton, University of, LL.M.; M.S.L.
DePaul University, LL.M.
Drake University, LL.M.; M.J.
Fordham University, LL.M. 
George Mason University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M.; M.S.L.
Golden Gate University, LL.M.
Houston, University of, LL.M.
Indiana University-Indianapolis, LL.M.
John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.; M.S.
Michigan State University,  LL.M.; M.J.
New Hampshire, University of, LL.M.; M.A.S.
San Francisco, University of, LL.M.
Santa Clara University, LL.M.
Seton Hall University, LL.M.; M.J.S. 
Washington, University of, LL.M.
Washington University, LL.M.
WMU Thomas Cooley Law School, LL.M.
Yeshiva University, LL.M.

Inter-American Law
Miami, University of, LL.M.

International Arbitration
Miami, University of, LL.M.

International Business and Trade Law
Arizona, University of, LL.M.
Boston University, LL.M.
Case Western Reserve University LL.M.
Denver, University of , LL.M.
Fordham University, LL.M.
Georgetown University, LL.M.
John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.
New York University, LL.M. 
Pacific-McGeorge, University of the, LL.M.
San Francisco, University of, LL.M.
Thomas Jefferson School of Law, LL.M.

International Law/International Legal Studies/Comparative Law/Transnational Law 
Albany Law School, LL.M.
American University, LL.M.
Case Western Reserve University, LL.M.
Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M. 
DePaul University, LL.M. 
Fordham University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M. 
Georgetown University, LL.M.
Golden Gate University, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Hofstra University, LL.M.
Houston, University of, LL.M.
Howard University, LL.M.
Indiana University-Indianapolis, LL.M.
Iowa, University of, LL.M.
Mississippi College, LL.M.
New York University, LL.M.
Notre Dame, University of, LL.M.
Pittsburgh, University of, LL.M.
Puerto Rico, University of, LL.M.
Richmond, University of, LL.M.
St. John's University, LL.M.
St. Mary's University, LL.M. 
San Diego, University of, LL.M.
Santa Clara University, LL.M.
Southern Methodist University, LL.M.
Stanford University, LL.M. 
Stetson University, LL.M. 
Temple University, LL.M.
Tulane University, LL.M.
Willamette University, LL.M.

International Taxation
Florida, University of, LL.M.
Michigan, University of, LL.M.
New York University, LL.M.
Thomas Jefferson School of Law, LL.M.

Juridical Studies
California-Los Angeles, University of, S.J.D.
Duke University, LL.M.
Temple University, S.J.D.

 Labor and Employment Law
Atlanta's  John Marshall Law School, LL.M. 
New York University, LL.M.
Nova Southeastern University, M.S.L. 
Wayne State University, LL.M.

Latin American Studies/Comparative Law
Tulane University, M.C.L.

Lawyering
Missouri-Kansas City, University of, LL.M.

Legal Doctrine and Analysis
Michigan State University

Legal Institutions
Wisconsin, University of, LL.M.

Legal Studies
Appalachian, M.L.S.
Arizona, University of, M.L.S.
Catholic University, M.L.S.
Drexel University, M.L.S.
Nebraska, University of, LL.M.
Washington University, M.L.S.
Willamette University, M.L.S.

Legal Theory
New York University, LL.M.

Litigation/Trial Advocacy
American University, LL.M.
California Western School of Law, LL.M.
Emory University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M. 
Inter-American University, LL.M.
The John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.
Temple University, LL.M.

Logistics and Transportation
Florida Coastal, LL.M.

Mental Disability Law
New York Law School, M.A.

Military Law
Judge Advocate General's School, LL.M.

National Security
Catholic University, LL.M.
George Washington University, LL.M.
Georgetown Unversity, LL.M.
WMU Thomas M. Cooley, LL.M.

Organizational Ethics & Compliance
St. Thomas, University of, LL.M.

Patent Law
Campbell University, Certificate
Case Western Reserve University, M.A.
Minnesota, University of, LL.M.; M.S.

Patent Prosecution
University of Notre Dame, Certificate

Practice of Law in the U.S.
Atlanta's John Marshall Law School, LL.M.

Prosecutorial Science
Chapman University, LL.M.

Real Estate/Land Development
John Marshall Law School (Chicago),  LL.M.
Miami, University of, LL.M.
New York Law School, M.S.L.
Pace University, LL.M.

Regulatory Compliance
Western State College, LL.M.

Research 
Indiana University-Bloomington, S.J.D.
Washington University, J.S.D.

Rule of Law
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.; M.J.

Securities and Financial Regulation
Georgetown University, LL.M.

Science of the Law
Chicago-Kent College of Law, J.S.D.
Connecticut, University of, S.J.D.

Space and Telecommunications
University of Nebraska, LL.M., LL.M. (online), J.S.D.; Certificate

Sports Law
Arizona State University, M.A.
Marquette University, LL.M. (for international lawyers) 
St. John's University, LL.M.

Sustainable International Development
Washington, University of, LL.M.

Taxation/Tax Law
Alabama, University of, LL.M.
Baltimore, University of, LL.M.
Boston University, LL.M.; Online program, LL.M. 
Capital University, LL.M.; M.T.
Chapman University, LL.M.
Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M.
Denver, University of, LL.M.
DePaul University, LL.M.
Emory University, LL.M.
Florida, University of, LL.M.; S.J.D.
Georgetown University, LL.M.
Golden Gate University, LL.M.
Houston, University of, LL.M.
John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.
Loyola Law School-Los Angeles, LL.M.; M.S.
Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.
Miami, University of, LL.M.
Missouri-Kansas City, University of, LL.M.
New York Law School, LL.M.

New York University, LL.M.; M.S.L.
Northwestern University, LL.M.
San Diego, University of, LL.M.
San Francisco, University of, LL.M.; M.L.S.T.
Southern Methodist University, LL.M.
Suffolk University, LL.M.
Temple University, LL.M.
Villanova University, LL.M.
Washington. University of, LL.M.
Washington University, LL.M.
Wayne State University, LL.M.
WMU Thomas M. Cooley Law School, LL.M.

Trade Regulation
New York University, LL.M.

Tribal Policy, Law, and Government
Arizona State University, LL.M.

Urban Affairs/Urban Studies
Missouri-Kansas City, University of, LL.M. 

U.S. Law/U.S. Legal System
Baltimore, University of LL.M.
California-Davis, University of, LL.M.
California-Hastings, University of, LL.M.
California Western, LL.M.
Connecticut, University of, LL.M.
Duke University, LL.M.
Florida Coastal School of Law, LL.M.
Fordham University, LL.M.
Georgia State University, LL.M.
Golden Gate University, LL.M.
John Marshall Law School (The), Chicago, LL.M.
Loyola University-New Orleans, LL.M.
New England Law | Boston, LL.M. 
North Carolina, University of, LL.M.
Pacific-McGeorge, University of the, LL.M.
St. John's University, LL.M.
St. Thomas, University of , LL.M.
Santa Clara University, LL.M.
Suffolk University, LL.M.
Texas Tech University, LL.M.
Washington and Lee University, LL.M.
Washington University, LL.M.
Washington University (online), LL.M.
Wayne State University, LL.M.
WMU Thomas M. Cooley Law School, LL.M.
Wisconsin, University of LL.M.


U.S. Legal Studies Programs for Foreign Lawyers or International Students

  • Alabama, University of, LL.M.
    Atlanta's John Marshall Law School, LL.M.
  • Baltimore, University of, LL.M.
  • Barry University, LL.M.
  • Boston University, LL.M.
  • Brigham Young University, LL.M.
  • Brooklyn Law School, LL.M.
  • California-Davis, University of, LL.M.
  • California-Hastings, University of, LL.M.
  • California-Los Angeles, University of, LL.M.
  • California Western University, LL.M./M.C.L.
  • Case Western Reserve University, LL.M.
  • Catholic University of America, LL.M.
  • Chicago-Kent College of Law, LL.M.
  • Connecticut, University of, LL.M.
  • Denver, University of, LL.M.
  • Duke University, LL.M.
  • Duquesne University, LL.M.
  • Florida Coastal School of Law, LL.M.
  • Florida International University, LL.M.
  • Florida State University, LL.M.
  • Georgetown University, LL.M.
  • Georgia State University, LL.M.
  • Golden Gate University, LL.M.
  • Hamline University, LL.M.
  • Hawaii, University of, LL.M.
  • Houston, University of, LL.M.
  • Howard University, LL.M.
  • Indiana University-Indianapolis, LL.M.
  • The John Marshall Law School (Chicago), LL.M.
  • Louisiana State University, LL.M.
  • Loyola University-Chicago, LL.M.
  • Loyola University-New Orleans, LL.M.
  • Marquette Unviersity, LL.M.
  • Miami, University of, LL.M.
  • Michigan State University, LL.M.
  • Minnesota, University of, LL.M.
  • New England Law School, LL.M.
  • New York University, LL.M.
  • North Carolina, University of, LL.M.
  • Ohio State University, LL.M.
  • Pace University, LL.M.
  • Pacific-McGeorge, University of, LL.M.
  • Regent University, LL.M.
  • Richmond, University of, LL.M.
  • St. John's University, LL.M.
  • Saint Louis University, LL.M.
  • St. Mary's University, LL.M.
  • San Diego, University of, LL.M.
  • San Francisco, University of, LL.M.
  • Santa Clara University, LL.M.
  • Seattle University, LL.M.
  • Southern California, University of, LL.M.
  • Southwestern Law School, LL.M.
  • Syracuse University, M.S.
  • Suffolk University, LL.M.
  • Temple University, LL.M.
  • Thomas M. Cooley Law School, LL.M.
  • Touro College, LL.M.
  • Tulsa, University of, LL.M.
  • Valparaiso University, LL.M.
  • Vanderbilt University, LL.M.
  • Vermont Law School, LL.M.
  • Wake Forest University, LL.M.
  • Washburn University, LL.M.
  • Washington and Lee University, LL.M.
  • Washington University, LL.M.
  • William & Mary, College of, LL.M.
  • William Mitchell College of Law, LL.M.

A Note to Graduates of Law Schools Located Outside the United States:
Degrees Other Than a J.D. and Bar Admissions

In order to obtain a license to practice law in the United States, all candidates must apply for bar admission through a state board of bar examiners. Although this board is ordinarily an agency of the highest court in the jurisdiction, occasionally the board is connected to the state's bar association. The criteria for eligibility to take the bar examination or to otherwise qualify for bar admission are set by each state, not by the ABA or the Council of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar.

In order to sit for the bar examination, most states require an applicant to hold a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from a law school that meets established educational standards. A J.D. earned at an ABA-approved law school meets the educational requirements in every jurisdiction in the United States. For those individuals who have not earned a J.D. degree from an ABA-approved law school, bar admission authorities have developed varying requirements and criteria to ascertain if such individuals meet the minimum educational requirements for bar admission. In most jurisdictions individuals who lack such a J.D. will find that they do not satisfy the minimum educational requirements for bar admission and are ineligible to take the bar exam. In some of the remaining states, graduates of foreign law schools will find that additional schooling such as an LL.M. is required, and a few others recognize with regularity the sufficiency of a specific foreign legal education. A number offer an alternative licensure mechanism known as a Foreign Legal Consultant which is a limited license to practice. And finally, some jurisdictions will allow individuals to be eligible for admission without examination under certain conditions if they have been admitted to the bar in another U.S. jurisdiction.

In the past few years, there has been a large increase in the number of graduates from schools located outside the United States enrolled in advanced degree programs (such as the LL.M.). In fact, roughly half of all the individuals currently enrolled in LL.M. programs are graduates of foreign law schools. Upon graduating, many of these individuals return to their home country without seeking or obtaining bar licensure in the United States. However, an increasing number of these individuals seek to be admitted to a state bar.

Unlike the J.D. degree bestowed by an ABA-approved law school, which carries the indicia that the holder of that degree has completed a course of study imparting standards entitling him or her to engage in the practice of law, advanced degree programs at ABA-approved law schools are not regulated, and thus, not "approved." As a result, such degrees vary in content and rigor. In other words, the American Bar Association does NOT accredit degrees of any kind other than the J.D.

It is the position of the Council of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Association that no graduate degree in law (LL.M., M.C.L., S.J.D., etc.) is or should be a substitute for the first professional degree in law (J.D.) and that no graduate degree should substitute for the J.D. in order to meet the legal education requirements for admission to the bar.

As a result of the variance in state bar admission rules, the ABA strongly encourages individuals to contact the state board of bar examiners in the state(s) in which they are interested in being admitted to ascertain its requirements to sit for the bar examination. Contact information and a summary of bar admission requirements for all U.S. jurisdictions is available in the Comprehensive Guide to Bar Admission Requirements, which can be downloaded for free or purchased from the ABA.

 

 

 

 

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